Exam & SAC Questions Agency&Control

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Give an example of one way the media has had influence over an audience.
- 2 marks -

Define Citizen Journalism and discuss an ethical problem that could occur as a result.
- 5 marks -

Discuss the impact that FAKE NEWS can have on audiences?
- 2 marks -

Discuss a case study where a media form or institution has had a negative effect an audience. In your response outline a communication theory that supports the outcome.
- 5 marks -

Some audiences are argued to be more susceptible than others. Discuss this statement and include one piece of evidence to support your discussion.
- 4 marks -

Outline two communication theories that contain different audience engagement. One must have an ACTIVE audience and the other a PASSIVE audience.
- 3 marks -

Identify and describe ONE rationale for the regulation of the media in Australia.
- 2 marks -

Identify and describe ONE rationale against the regulation of the media in Australia.
- 2 marks -

Provide one example in which audiences exercise agency over the media in the contemporary media landscape, and explain how this example conveys the dynamic and changing relationship between the media and its audience.
- 4 marks -

Describe one way that the relationship between audiences and the media is regulated, and explain the challenges with this type of regulation.
- 6 marks -

Explain how the globalisation of media institutions has had an impact on the regulation of media content in Australia. In your response, refer to a specific example.
- 6 marks -

Newer technologies have given power to audiences to easily produce and distribute their own media products. Provide two examples of these technologies, and explore the ethical or legal issues that may arise from the new production or distribution opportunities they afford.
- 8 marks -

Social networks have enabled new modes of production, distribution, consumption and reception based on the sharing of commercial and user-generated content. Describe the impact that these new modes have on the relationship between the media and its audience
- 5 marks -

Describe an ethical and/or legal issue arising from media institutions harvesting and selling an individual’s personal information.
- 5 marks -

Today there are new ways that audiences can consume and distribute media. Outline two different ways audiences can consume and distribute media. For both examples, discuss the legal and ethical issues that may arise from this consumption.
- 6 marks -

Practice question with image

Using the image beside this question create a debate of agency and control with regards to media influence.

• In your response include two communication theories

- 8 marks -

TOP RESPONSES BY STUDENTS

Question using an image

Using the Image beside create a debate of agency and control with regards to media influence.

In your response you must include two communication theories.
- 8 marks -

Well written response: By Student

Using the Image above create a debate of agency and control with regards to media influence.
In your response you must include two communication theories.
- 8 marks -

The media plays a large role in our lives and as this increases, so does the shift in agency and control between creators and their audience engagement. When media producers create and distribute media products they are relying on their production to be consumed by either a passive or active audience. Passive audiences merely observe media and the messages being presented to them without forming any judgement or opinions and as a result just accept the information. The Hypodermic needle theory is a communication theory that reflects this passive audience. This theory often sees audiences acting and believing what they see, read and hear. One can assume this image is a reflection of this communication theory. Copy-Cat crimes and News Headlines often depict this theory in action. In 2013, a young boy allegedly shot and killed his grandmother after playing the violent video game, 'Call of duty'. The by-line in the image, 'Don't let others influence your thoughts', indicates these actions of this theories definition. However, many would argue the flaws and weaknesses that are represented in this dated communication theory.

Additionally, the media nowadays is having serious effects on people that spend a lot of their free time on social media platforms. And as a result having huge impacts on their self-esteem. Applications such as Snapchat and Instagram, with approximately 188 million users daily, allow people to edit their selfies, so they look an artificial version of themselves. By doing this, users are presented with a better version of themselves through the use of these filters. We now see 55% of surgeons claim that there has been an increase in patients asking for plastic surgery in order to make them look like their Snapchat selfies in real-life. The University of Boston has dubbed this as, 'Snapchat Dysmorphia'.

Studies show that 45% of women feel unattractive when comparing themselves to other people on social media. This relates directly to the Reinforcement Theory, which states that the media doesn't change peoples beliefs it merely reinforces pre-existing attitudes. One could argue that this image represents the audience members who strongly believe that we should NOT, 'Let others influence your thoughts', especially the media.

Well written response: By Student

With technological advances, the distribution of media products has drastically changed creating ethical and legal issues. Describe an ethical or legal issue in the distribution of a media product.
- 6 marks –

The globalisation of media products has undoubtedly increased distribution through increased accessibility and affordability of technology. Due to this on the increase is citizen journalism, in which includes the reporting of news and events by members of the public using the internet and social media to spread information. An implication to this growth is the ethical issue of FAKE NEWS, as websites and audiences are sharing news stories and propaganda that are untrue and misleading.

Facebook is an easily used platform used to distribute headlines or create posts containing false or misleading information. With 14% of users admitting to deliberately sharing a fake political news. It is also noted that 60% of consumers on Facebook are unable to tell if headlines in their news feeds are real or fake.

Fake news most commonly is developed to damage an agency, entity or person and or gain financial or political recognition. This can cause cultural and ethical issues for countries and individuals.

Well written responses: By Student

Give an example of one way the media has had influence over an audience.
- 2 marks -

Media is able to exert power over someone's actions or choices, such as the media platform Google. Google has the capacity to read all of an individuals data and determine the direction of search based on previous search requests. Google is the primary entry point for most media users online, with data being recorded and sold to governments and institutions. This therefore illustrates the power media has, as they can influence an individuals search and direction in what is viewed.

Provide one example in which audiences exercise agency over the media in the contemporary media landscape, and explain how this example conveys the dynamic and changing relationship between the media and its audience.
- 4 marks -

Across the social media platform, particularly looking at the application of Snapchat, evidence has seen a direct relationship with patients seeking plastic surgery to look more like the filtered version of themselves. The changing relationship between what filters are provided to the audience from the media application causes viewers to see different perceptions of themselves. The dynamic software is capable of editing a selfie, in which according to researchers from Boston University has dubbed 'Snapchat dysmorphia' in which people ask plastic surgeons to reproduce the "insta fix" they see from their smartphone of these selfies. Researcher's article also noted that in 2017, 55% of surgeons brought evidence to this case reporting seeing patients who requested surgery to look better in selfies.

Identify and describe one rationale for the regulation of the media in Australia.
- 2 marks -

Regulation can reduce violent behaviour through the monitoring of video games and the content that is included. In 2013, an incident occurred in which a young man opened fire at a high school, with note that this man also partakes in playing video games that act out 'some dark digital fantasy'. This form of copy cat crime could be identified as a link, and therefore, if regulation monitors the exposure to violent events, violence could be seen to be further reduced.

Identify and describe one rationale against the regulation of the media in Australia.
- 2 marks -

Regulation limits confronting yet highly important issues that are needed to be discussed within the media such as mental health. Mental health reform advocate Professor Patrick Mc Gorry noted, 'it's great to see the Press Council say there is a positive benefit to reporting it [suicide].' As, 'if you can't tell the story, you can't get the message across'. Therefore, through regulation occasionally limiting the word 'suicide' from articles and news headlines along with publicising it only to older age groups it reduces awareness and therefore potential to have mental health discussed more easily and help to be more widely accepted.

Describe on way that the relationship between audiences and the media is regulated, and explain the challenges with this type of regulation.
- 6 marks -

National Classification Scheme is an organisation monitoring the relationship between an audience and the media presented. The idea of the organisation is on the basis that adults should be accustomed to viewing anything in which they please, however, should be protected from unsolicited material likely to offend and take into account community concerns. Minors should also be protected from material that may upset or disturb them. Through the categories of G, PG, M15+, MA15+, R and X, ages can be restricted and content can be distributed to audiences it is best suited for without having a negative impact.

However, the challenges with this type of regulation is seen through the increasing access to materials illegally through movie websites that show content to all ages despite their age. The classification on these websites are also not easily or vividly given. Regulation is also based on the decision by the Classification Board, in which could cause debatable classification. Exposure may still be given to minors that parents may still justify as insensitive.

The media has always been considered to have the capacity to influence, but these days the balance or power is changing and arguments about who can influence an audience and a market have become highly contested.
- 10 marks -

Discuss how the change in methods of production, distribution, consumption or reception of media products has changed the extent of media influence.

Media has always been a powerful tool, however the balance of power is changing with control becoming increasingly in the hands of the audience alongside media producers. Media exercises its force through the production of software such as Google. Google, a searching tool to websites, has the capacity to read all of an individuals data and determine the direction of their search. This tool then has the power to sell its content to governments and institutions, in which influence the distribution, consumption and reception of media products. Institutions may use the date to sway advertising or the creation of media products that are appealing to the largest proportion of people in the target of increasing profit. The consumption of these products will therefore influence a greater number of people and their reception, as they are continued to be surrounded by similar topics.

This can be illustrated through body image, a powerful and highly discussed topic that is highly influenced by not only producers by consumers. Through the increasing number of Instagram, Facebook and Snapchat users but also magazines and work out adverts, individuals are constantly reminded and compared to others. A 2016 study researches at Penn State University suggested that viewing other people's selfies lowered self-esteem. However, distributers continue to market these products and producers continue to enhance this due to its popularity, as research proves this is what individuals want to see and be surrounded by.

Applications such as Snapchat and Instagram are controlled heavily be audiences, as they choose the best versions of themselves to be digitalized and shown to the world. They have the power to spread a positive note on body image or distort themselves and create a desire to be something someone is not. This has created 'Snapchat Dusmorphia', in which according to researched from Boston University, involves people asking plastic surgeons to reproduce the "insta fix" they see in their own smartphone-edited selfies. The increased number of selfies an individual takes and distributes can be seen as worrying, as this is a mental condition that causes people to become obsessed with perceived defects in their appearance.

Well written response: By Student

With technological advances, the distribution of media products has drastically changed creating ethical and legal issues. Describe an ethical or legal issue in the distribution of a media product.
- 6 marks –

Some people claim that media forms and or texts can have a range of influences on individuals and society that create both ethical and legal issues as a result of technological advances. With approximately 3356 million active social media users worldwide, more and more people have greater agency and control over media consumption, however the increased exposure of online content creates the ethical issue of body image.

The increasing access to photoshopped images and editing filters has left individuals feeling inadequate with issues of body image. Dr Boomerg stated that, “Social Media makes it easy for people to quickly post unhealthy, thin, misleading images of women and men to millions of people”. She continued that, “for several decades there has been extreme pressure on women to be extremely, unhealthy then”, where their new exposure to edited images through new media has enhanced this issue. According to a survey produced by Scope, half of the 1,500 10 to 34 year olds they questioned stated that social media makes them feel more unattractive as a result of the communication effects model where the change in media distribution has created new ethical issues.

Well written response: By Student

Provide an example of when the media has had a negative impact on its audience. - 4 marks -

Some people claim that media forms and/or texts can have a range of influences on individuals and society. This claim is further suggested in various communication theories in particular the Hypodermic Needle Theory. Developed following the resolution of the first World War, this Linear Communication theory suggests the media has a direct and powerful influence on audiences (as if they were being injected with a hypodermic needle). This theory was reinforced in 2013 when an 8 year old boy fatally shot his grandmother in the head after playing the violent, life like video game, Grand Theft Auto. This incident directly correlates and the supports the Hypodermic Needle Theory, as it suggests the child (representing the general audience) are passive, and will act out or believe what they consume from the media. This incident is one of many 'Copycat' crimes that further reinforce the theory.

Well written responses: By Student

Give an example of one way the media has had influence over an audience.
- 3 marks -

Media creators and producers use the power of agency and control to distribute their products and gain influence over an audience. An example of this is the introduction of filters, lighting and obsession with camera angles that spreads across all social media forms. The altering of an image or selfie has demonstrated negative effects over an individual's self-esteem. According to a survey produced by Scope, half of 1,500 18 to 34 year olds say that social media makes them feel unattractive. The use of the communication effect model, in apps such as Facebook, demonstrate a proportion of control and influence over an audience. Those who spend more time on addictive social media platforms, such as Facebook, are reporting to feel discontent with both their appearance and lifestyle. It is the use of techniques that are found in propaganda and casino gambling that foster an addiction to the app and continue to exercise its power over its users.

Provide one example in which audiences exercise agency over the media in the contemporary media landscape, and explain how this example conveys the dynamic and changing relationship between the media and its audience.
- 4 marks -

Audiences now a days have greater control and influence over their engagement and consumption of a media product over time. The contemporary media landscape now provides audiences with greater agency (the ability to act and make choices) based on their consumption. Media distribution in previous demographics was controlled through one platform of distribution. Newspapers or news broadcast were controlled by the same company and producers. Therefore, previous audiences had minimal control over the content they were exposed. In a 21st century, the relationship between media and an audience has progressed significantly. An example of this only search engine, Google, which symbolises the transition from old to new media. Google's capacity to read a user's online data and determine the direction of their search entails that audiences are able to gain control through the nature of their search and content they are exploring through previous searches, likes and interest. A users direction of search provides control over what they are choosing to expose themselves too unlike a previous audience's relationship with the media.

Explain how the globalisation of media institutions has had an impact on the regulation of media content in Australia. In your response, refer to a specific example.
- 6 marks -

Some claim that media forms and/or texts can have a range of influences on individuals and society where the number of online users is increasing. Media and its exposure to the world has grown a considerable amount due to globalisation with approximately 3 356 million active social media users on a global scale. Many challenges and concerns have arisen due to such online interaction, leading to an urge for greater regulation of media content in Australia. The increasing access to photoshopped images and editing and filters, has left individuals feeling inadequate and issues of body image. Many believe that media regulation is not doing enough to protect online users from its damaging effects. Dr Bromberg stated that “For several decades, there has been extreme pressure on women to be extremely, unhealthily thin,” due the exposure of edited images, where the "images do not look like the women in reality.” Bromberg continues that "social media makes it easy for people to quickly post unhealthily thin images of women to millions of people,” and leaves them to compare themselves to what they see. Such notion is a contributing factor to many health concerns such as eating disorders, and it is argued that laws and legislation should be implemented to protect online users from this exposure. Australia currently has a Voluntary Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image that urges the fashion, media and advertising industries to refrain from using Photoshop. However, Bromberg believes that "Australia's legal system can look to countries that have legislated" such as France and Israel, "which requires models to have a minimum BMI in order to work." and "if an image was modified… it must contain a warning."